top of page

Acts & Laws


India's rich tapestry of diverse cultures and customs impacts its legal landscape, especially laws like those governing inheritance. While this complexity can be challenging, it's important to understand the key framework underpinning Indian real estate. Some foundational pillars include the Transfer of Property Act (1882), the Registration Act (1908), and the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act (RERA) (2016).

Central Level:


  • Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA): This landmark Act established the Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) in each state to regulate developers, ensure project completion, and protect home buyer interests. It mandates project registration, disclosure norms, financial transparency, timelines for completion, escrow accounts for project funds, and grievance redressal mechanisms.

  • Transfer of Property Act, 1882: This Act governs the transfer of immovable property, including sale, mortgage, lease, and exchange. It defines legal requirements for property transactions, including registration formalities, documentation, and stamp duty payments.

  • Indian Contract Act, 1872: This Act governs contracts in general, including property-related agreements. It outlines principles of offer, acceptance, consideration, and breach of contract, which are relevant for understanding legal obligations in real estate transactions.

  • The Indian Stamp Act, 1899: This Act mandates the payment of stamp duty on property transactions to authenticate documents and generate revenue for the government. Different states have their stamp duty rates and rules.


State Level:


  • State-specific Tenancy Laws: These laws regulate the relationship between landlords and tenants in residential and commercial properties, including rent control, eviction rights, and tenant protection measures. They vary significantly across states.

  • Land Ceiling Acts: Enacted by individual states, these Acts set maximum limits on landholdings to promote land distribution and prevent the concentration of ownership. They can impact land availability for real estate development in certain areas.

  • State RERA Rules: Each state, under RERA, has its own rules and regulations specific to its region. These may cover additional requirements for developers, dispute resolution procedures, and other aspects not explicitly addressed in the Central Act.


  • Environmental Clearance Laws: Projects exceeding a certain size or located in ecologically sensitive areas require environmental clearance before construction, impacting real estate development in those areas.

  • Building Bye-Laws: Local municipal bodies issue building bye-laws dictating construction guidelines, zoning regulations, and safety standards for buildings, influencing real estate projects' design and execution.



The Indian Constitution defines "land" through a network of provisions guaranteeing property rights, facilitating land acquisition for public purposes, promoting land reforms, protecting tribal land rights, and upholding environmental considerations.


India's real estate landscape is governed by a fascinating interplay of state and central laws, all stemming from how "land" is defined in the Constitution. In the Indian federal system, legislative powers regarding land are distributed between the Central Government, State Governments, and the Concurrent List.

# State List (Land under the exclusive control of State Governments) :


  • Land Revenue: States administer and collect land revenue from agricultural land within their territory.

  • Land Acquisition: While Parliament sets principles, states enact their laws for land acquisition for public purposes within their territories.

  • Tenancy Laws: These regulate the relationship between landlords and tenants, including rent control, eviction rights, and tenant protection.

  • Land Use Planning: States determine land use zoning and development plans within their jurisdiction.

  • Agriculture Management: Laws related to agricultural practices, irrigation, and crop improvement fall under the State List.


# Concurrent List (Shared jurisdiction between Central and State Governments) :


  • Evacuee Property: Laws regarding the custody, management, and disposal of land declared as evacuee property.

  • Acquisition and Requisitioning of Property: Both Central and State Governments have the power to acquire or requisition land for public purposes, though Central laws prevail in case of conflict.

  • Stamp Duties: While judicial stamp duties fall under the Union List, other stamp duties on land transactions belong to the Concurrent List.


# Union List (Land under the exclusive control of the Central Government) :


  • National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries: The Central Government establishes and manages protected areas like national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, often involving land acquisition.

  • Defence and Military Installations: Land used for defence purposes and military installations falls under the exclusive control of the Central Government.

  • Inter-State Water Disputes: The Central Government has the power to resolve water disputes between states, which may involve land used for water resource projects.


# Specific Land Laws:


  • State-specific Land Ceiling Acts: These Acts, enacted by individual states, impose maximum limits on landholdings to promote land distribution and equity. (State List)

  • The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation, and Resettlement Act, 2013: This Central Act sets forth principles and procedures for land acquisition for public purposes across India. (Concurrent List)

  • The Indian Forest Act, 1927: This Central Act regulates forest management and conservation across India, including land within designated forest areas. (Concurrent List)

bottom of page